Thursday, March 12, 2020

Colnialism and Imperialism essays

Colnialism and Imperialism essays First, I'd like to say that there are tree types of colonies: colonies of settlement, Colonies of Exploitation and contested settlement colonies. In this Project I will hopefully try to explain all of them and go trough some history. When Citizens of the colonizing country moved to and took complete control in the new area, these type colonies cam to light. The term also means that the colonizing country culture replaces the original culture and new crops and animals dominate over the new land. Unfortunately (again), settlers often excluded the native inhabitants from their society or brutally killed them -just for existing in "their" colony. But the settlers also brought diseases and plagues to the poor natives which they couldn't handle (their immune system was only optimised for their own environment and they weren't ready for this). For an example of this, we can look overseas and a couple of hundred years ago, in America, were thousands of "Indians" died because of the white mans garbage. Colonies of Settlement is often located in the same climates as the European countries. Colonies of Exploitation were different from colonies of settlement. Colonies of exploitation was more economy-based rather than taking land for settlement. The settlers often pushed the native population in the country to produce valuable crops such as spice, cotton, rubber and other precious export articles. We can find examples of this in Indonesia, Nigeria, and Ghana. Contested settlement colonies (when natives resists) Contested settlement colonies were at first "kinder" versions of colonies of settlement, because the settlers developed their own track. Settlers did not replace the natives' culture, language or government, they founded their own independent of the natives. But politically the settlers ruled over the natives. The natives lived pretty good, they had much control over their lives, although their politically was...

Monday, February 24, 2020

The impact of Communicational climate on job satisfaction and job Literature review

The impact of Communicational climate on job satisfaction and job performance - Literature review Example Many organizations are run through managerial leadership or rather transactional leadership. Burns (1978) says that transactional leadership is based on the assumption that improving communication will increase morale and motivation, which in turn will increase individual and organizational performance (p. 55). It makes a lot of senses that satisfied workers will work harder and perform better than dissatisfied workers; if people are happy at work, they should work harder and perform better than dissatisfied workers; if people are happy at work, they should be more committed to their organization and thus should want to work harder to make sure their organization succeeds. Northhouse (2010) argues that relational strategies do have positive effects on performance in the production-oriented firms, but not for the reasons typically ascribed to it (p. 45). Rafaeli & Sudweeks (1994) says that 50 years of research on the bond between job satisfaction and performance have not found strong relationships between the two (p. 99). The average correlation is 0.14 which means that about 2 percent of differences in employee’s performance can be attributed to differences in their job satisfaction or that other factors simultaneously increase both satisfaction and performance. Organizational communication usually takes the form of top-bottom communication meaning that communication comes from top managers to lower rank employees. This is the most common although bottom-top communication also occurs at times. Pliskin & Romm (1990) says that a string of later studies exposed empirical evidence suggesting that employee’s perceptions of top management communication influence employee’s job satisfaction and performance (p. 56-60). Poole (1983) found in a study of hospital nurses, for example, that the factors most influencing nurses’ job satisfaction, and performance

Saturday, February 8, 2020

ROLE OF THE NURSE IN SUBSTANCE MISUSE Literature review

ROLE OF THE NURSE IN SUBSTANCE MISUSE - Literature review Example While education and health response should constantly be designed individually to suit the unique needs of patients, this is particularly vital to those who are experiencing substance misuse problems. This paper discusses the role of nurses in substance misuses and reflects on how this role can benefit clients/patients and can meet the demands of best practice guidelines and legislation challenges. Self-reported substance misuse in the UK indicates that roughly ten percent of adolescents and older adults use drugs yearly, and more than ninety percent drink consume alcohol (Straussner 2004). A few of these people experience working with primary care nurses. Individuals with substance misuse problems encounter a broad array of social care and health practitioners. Expectedly, several practitioners have recognised inadequacies in the education and training for treating substance misuse (Cann & De Belleroche 2002). All these issues are discussed here. Corresponding to the widespread enla rged demand for nursing services for patients with substance misuse issues, the role of the nurse has expanded remarkably in the recent decade. Nurses working with substance misusers work in diverse contexts with substance misusers, and have varied health care perceptions and strategies. According to Joel and Kelly (2002), their tasks involve assessing the needs of substance misusers, determining best possible treatment, counselling, and performing required treatment methods. Nursing Substance Misusers Several empirical findings show that the role of the nurse working with substance misusers can be especially nerve-racking and challenging (Wagner & Waldron 2001). This is primarily because of the growing demand for expert skills and knowledge in areas like counselling, assessment, promoting the participation of patients in the decision-making process, communication, organisational aspects like lack of support, education and training for staff, loss of financial assistance, and modifi cations in services (Sullivan 1995). The roles of the substance misuse nurse, as stated by Mike Bell (as cited in Newell 1998): (1) nurses interact personally with substance misusers; (2) nurses evaluate the patient’s needs and develop their strong points; (3) nurses operate within specific areas; (4) nurses are responsible for their own decisions and actions; and (5) nurses collaborate with one another to provide the best services to substance misusers. Florence Nightingale (1912) expressed the importance of the nurse’s role in his statement: I solemnly declare that I have seen or known of fatal accidents, such as suicides in delirium tremens, bleedings to death, dying patients dragged out of bed by drunken medical staff corps men and many other things less patent and striking, which would not have happened in London Civil Hospitals nursed by women (Nightingale 1912, 28). It is probable that there are differences in the expectations and role of substance misuse nurses all over the UK, relying on context and setting. For instance, health organisations may follow different guidelines; different groups in primary care may also differ in the extent of decision making entrusted to drug specialist nurses, concerning recommendation and treatment (Shaw 2002). The following sections discuss the professional and personal skills needed by substance misuse nurses to adequately fulfil their challenging roles and satisfy best practice

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Advantages and disadvantages of Home-working Essay Example for Free

Advantages and disadvantages of Home-working Essay Most of organizations use ICT for their work. Using ICT has increase the pace of organizations by a huge factor as well as helping in many other ways. However, everything has its disadvantages as well as advantages; the disadvantages of using ICT is developing some physical diseases, increased chances of fraud through ICT, etc. Day by day, new technologies are exploited and new ways of using ICT is introduced to people. One of the changes that can be brought to an editing company is to increase the amount of home-working. Increasing home-working will have many positive effects on the organization as well as some bad. If home-working is increased, the staff will have an opportunity of preparing their ergonomics just the way they want it to be. This will provide the staff with a more comfortable environment, and a better status of the brain; this way the staff can be more active and contribute more to their job. The other benefit of increasing home-working is that the risk of hacking and fraud of the data is reduced. If the staff member does most of his/her work at home, this means that he stores it in his own personal area. If someone broke up into the company, they wont be able to find that information, because it is not stored in the companys ICT. If home-working is increased, the staff member will be able to do his/her work whenever, wherever he/she wants; this wont give them a hard time trying to show up in the office on time. It will also help reduce transport. The members can do the work from home and will not need to go to their office. The reduction in transport is proven helpful for the environment. The disadvantages of increasing home-working are that the worker should be a responsible person. Many people will not do something unless they are forced to. If the employee of an organization is an irresponsible person, home-working will shows a decrease in productivity of an organization. The staff member should be able to differentiate between their personal life and work life to be able to have as successful life. The other disadvantage of home-working is that the employee is independent while working; this might raise a temptation of not working in them since there is no boss to tell them to do the work. Also, the boss would not know which employee is more productive than others, therefore they wont be able to reward, or penalize any of the employees. Keeping to the deadlines is very important. If given a task to complete by a certain date, it will be the responsibility of the employee to manage their time and have the task done by the deadline. However there is no guarantee that something wont go wrong. Maybe for example, losing all the data due to some technical or software error in the computer. There might even be some kind of a physical damage to the machinery which will delay the task. But being away from the employers sight, it might be difficult to prove that such an incident had really take place.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Philosophy is Important Essay -- essays research papers

Philosophy is Important Philosophy is an important subject, because it helps us understand three big questions; â€Å"why are we here†, â€Å"what do we do†, and â€Å"how do we treat each other†. These are important questions to answer because without them we may end up in a situation much like the Taliban is in right now. Complete chaos created from confusion about those three big questions. These questions are left in a general sense because there are many different ways to look at them. After all we have many different people with many different ideas and so to come to a more concise understanding of such important topics we need everyone’s viewpoint. This is the purpose of something philosophers call â€Å"The great conversation†. For example: Think back to the attack on the US of September 11th. These attacks were caused for a variety of reasons, one of which being that the Taliban believed they had the answer as to the correct way to run a society. Therefore â€Å" The Great Conversation† was stopped. After all if I am the Taliban and I believe I have the answer as to how to run a society because I feel I have answered the three big questions, then why keep discussing? Why include anyone else’s opinions and beliefs? Because if you don’t then things could become violent, just as they did in Afghanistan. So you say you don’t want to be like Afghanistan? Well good! So then how do you determine the answer to those three big questions, and what if there is more than one answer? That’s the purpose of philosophy and more specifically â€Å"The Great Conversation†, to come up with the best possible answer to all questions that may arise without eliminating the possibility that a better answer may exist. Take â€Å"Plato’s Cave† for example: People sit in a cave looking at shadows cast on a wall, from the light of a fire behind them. They have been chained to the floor for centuries. They are fed, clothed, and generally stimulated by the shadows, which are those of puppets on a bridge behind them. The people believe the shadows are real. But ponder just for a second; what if you were one of those people? What if you were released from your shackles and allowed to move about the cave freely. How would you explain to the others that the shadows they are seeing are not real people, but actual shadows made by the puppets on the bridge behind them? Would they believe you? Now switch roles. What if... ...t is true?† Once again we deal with two opposite ends of a debate spectrum. We focus on a few things here. One of which is where does knowledge come from? Those who believe that the exercise of reason, rather than experience, authority, or spiritual revelation, provides the primary basis for knowledge are called Rationalists. Basically they believe people have revelations, and are born with knowledge (innate.) On the opposite, those who believe that experience, especially of the senses, is the only source of knowledge are known as Empiricists. Reason versus experience, you decide for yourself. For our last and final study we explore Ontology; the nature of being. Is it human nature to fill your space with material goods? Do they bring you happiness? Is that happiness true happiness? If you answered â€Å"yes† to any of those questions you may be a â€Å"Materialist† while if you answered â€Å"no† to any of those questions, there is a chance you may be an â€Å"Idealist†; someone who believes that the use of ideas, thinking, questioning, and active mental stimulation are far more valuable in terms of achieving happiness than the passive, vegetable style consumption of goods that plagues many of us. Philosophy is Important Essay -- essays research papers Philosophy is Important Philosophy is an important subject, because it helps us understand three big questions; â€Å"why are we here†, â€Å"what do we do†, and â€Å"how do we treat each other†. These are important questions to answer because without them we may end up in a situation much like the Taliban is in right now. Complete chaos created from confusion about those three big questions. These questions are left in a general sense because there are many different ways to look at them. After all we have many different people with many different ideas and so to come to a more concise understanding of such important topics we need everyone’s viewpoint. This is the purpose of something philosophers call â€Å"The great conversation†. For example: Think back to the attack on the US of September 11th. These attacks were caused for a variety of reasons, one of which being that the Taliban believed they had the answer as to the correct way to run a society. Therefore â€Å" The Great Conversation† was stopped. After all if I am the Taliban and I believe I have the answer as to how to run a society because I feel I have answered the three big questions, then why keep discussing? Why include anyone else’s opinions and beliefs? Because if you don’t then things could become violent, just as they did in Afghanistan. So you say you don’t want to be like Afghanistan? Well good! So then how do you determine the answer to those three big questions, and what if there is more than one answer? That’s the purpose of philosophy and more specifically â€Å"The Great Conversation†, to come up with the best possible answer to all questions that may arise without eliminating the possibility that a better answer may exist. Take â€Å"Plato’s Cave† for example: People sit in a cave looking at shadows cast on a wall, from the light of a fire behind them. They have been chained to the floor for centuries. They are fed, clothed, and generally stimulated by the shadows, which are those of puppets on a bridge behind them. The people believe the shadows are real. But ponder just for a second; what if you were one of those people? What if you were released from your shackles and allowed to move about the cave freely. How would you explain to the others that the shadows they are seeing are not real people, but actual shadows made by the puppets on the bridge behind them? Would they believe you? Now switch roles. What if... ...t is true?† Once again we deal with two opposite ends of a debate spectrum. We focus on a few things here. One of which is where does knowledge come from? Those who believe that the exercise of reason, rather than experience, authority, or spiritual revelation, provides the primary basis for knowledge are called Rationalists. Basically they believe people have revelations, and are born with knowledge (innate.) On the opposite, those who believe that experience, especially of the senses, is the only source of knowledge are known as Empiricists. Reason versus experience, you decide for yourself. For our last and final study we explore Ontology; the nature of being. Is it human nature to fill your space with material goods? Do they bring you happiness? Is that happiness true happiness? If you answered â€Å"yes† to any of those questions you may be a â€Å"Materialist† while if you answered â€Å"no† to any of those questions, there is a chance you may be an â€Å"Idealist†; someone who believes that the use of ideas, thinking, questioning, and active mental stimulation are far more valuable in terms of achieving happiness than the passive, vegetable style consumption of goods that plagues many of us.

Monday, January 13, 2020

The Effects of Underage Drinking and Driving While

The Effects of Underage Drinking and Driving While Under the Influence Heather Herrick Dr. Hawkins ENC1101 November 27, 2012 ABSTRACT: Underage drinking is one of the biggest problems in society today (â€Å"Enforcing†). Throughout childhood, the brain is making changes that assist in planning, decision making, controlling impulses, memory, speech and also how the body responds to drugs and alcohol (â€Å"NIAAA†).Not only does underage drinking cause problems with brain development and unprotected sex, but it also causes various fatalities. The purpose for this research is to help prevent underage drinking and driving while under the influence of alcohol and to reduce the number of fatalities not only in Volusia County but also throughout the United States. According to the West Volusia Beacon, bars and restaurants in downtown Deland were caught selling to people under the age of 21.Since then, the City Commission has passed an ordinance to penalize any bar or restauran t that is caught with five or more people under the age of 21 inside their facility after nine o’clock within a three month period, or if there are five or more people who are underage caught with a drink in their hand. Bar and restaurant owners agree that underage drinking has a negative effect on their business. Older folk don’t want to be surrounded by a college â€Å"frat-boy† atmosphere and that is why they stay away from the downtown area.Officials believe that if penalties are executed and enforced the right way that is the only way this ordinance will work (Horton). Nationally, making new laws and better enforcing older laws by using the EUDL (Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws) have helped prevent underage drinking. According to the Center for Science in the Public Interest, Congress created this program in 1998 along with the MLDA-21 and Zero Tolerance Laws, which prohibit the sale and possession of alcohol to anyone under the age of 21.These laws also h elp prevent the amount of drivers on the road with a Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) level of . 08 and above which has significantly decreased the number of fatal car accidents by a combined 58 percent (â€Å"Enforcing†). Other laws prohibit anyone under the age of 21 from altering or borrowing from a driver’s license from someone to make it appear as if they are 21, carry alcohol in their car or on their body on any street, highway or public place or be in a bar while under the influence of alcohol.A program called the â€Å"Midwestern Prevention Program† combines strategies to help educate children of how harmful drugs and alcohol can be, how to identify social encounters where drugs and alcohol may be involved and how to avoid such situations through extracurricular activities, the amount of alcohol advertising children are exposed to, prevention programs where both families and the community are involved and changing and creating new policies such as the minimum drinking age and other laws (â€Å"Other Laws†).The survey conducted with the students at Deland High School gives a general estimate of how often teenagers in high school consume alcohol, where they get alcohol from, if their parents support their drinking habits, if they drive after drinking and includes a written response from the teenagers about the reasons behind why they drink. The conclusion made from the survey is that most children are likely to try alcohol or drink regularly while in high school. However, it is their parents who have an overall effect on how much their children drink.These results show that more study should be conducted on the overall effects and experiences caused by underage drinking. INTRODUCTION: As the years have passed, underage drinking has become a bigger and bigger problem. Nationwide there are an estimated 10. 8 million underage drinkers. Forty percent of those 10. 8 million were provided free alcohol by someone 21 or older. Annually, 15 percent of the total alcohol consumed in the United States is consumed by people ages 12-21 (â€Å"Other Laws†) and 9. 4 percent have an alcohol abuse disorder (â€Å"Nationwide†).In just one year, problems caused by underage drinking cost the citizens of the United States 60. 3 billion dollars (â€Å"Enforcing†). In 2007, specifically in Florida, underage drinking cost the state $4. 5 billion in medical bills and property damage (â€Å"Florida’s†) and out of the 4,915 car accidents in Volusia County alone last year, 679 were caused by alcohol (â€Å"FloridaCHARTS†). Risking children’s health and futures, underage drinking is responsible for over 5,000 deaths annually throughout the United States.Alcohol is the most commonly used and abuse drug since it isn’t very difficult to obtain. Fueling the fire of underage drinking is lack of parental guidance (â€Å"New†); in a survey given by Nationwide Insurance to 2,006 Ameri can households over the phone, the results show that 57 percent believe that parents have the biggest impact on whether their children drink alcohol, 16 percent think it is okay for parents to supervise a party where there is alcohol being consumed by minors and 8 percent believe it is okay for adults to provide their children with alcohol (â€Å"Statistics†).Although there are programs and laws in action to reduce the occurrence of underage drinking, they aren’t being enforced or publicized like they should be. For example, in Tallahassee Florida, the Tallahassee Police Department has been cracking down on underage drinking at nearby universities such as: Florida State, Florida A&M and Tallahassee Community College, along with anyone else under the age of 21 with a drink in their hand. These actions are also similar to the ones being taken in Deland Florida (Horton).The first time being caught drinking under the age of 21, the offender is charged with a second-degree misdemeanor and may also be put into a diversion program by a judge, the second time the person will be charged with a first-degree misdemeanor, given jail time for up to a year and receive fines up to $1,000 (â€Å"City†). Although, in Tallahassee, a college town where some students drink or have been drinking since before college, Florida State University is considered the most â€Å"raging party scene† out of all the colleges in Florida according to CollegeProwler. om (â€Å"Rankings†) and even though law enforcement can slightly reduce the amount of underage drinking, it will be more than a challenge to completely put a stop to it. PLANNED OBSERVATION: There are many rumors and expectations of what goes on at high school parties. So, upon invitation I attended a high school Halloween party (strictly for research) to observe and record the social surroundings before, during and after a person under the age of 21 participates in underage drinking and to also s ee what different kinds of injuries, accidents, and other activities can occur when teenagers consume amounts of alcohol.Upon pulling into the driveway, there were 30-40 cars were parked on the front lawn along with cars parked along the sides of the road. The girl and her mother, who were hosting the party, were in the front yard directing people where to park. In the backyard there were multiple groups of teenagers numbering about five of six to a group dressed in their costumes and most holding drinks in their hands. While walking around the backyard, I talked with a few of the partygoers. â€Å"So what brought you here tonight? † I asked one boy I approached.Sounding heavily intoxicated he replied, â€Å"I’m here to have a good time and get f****d up! † while walking to the back porch of the house. To my left there were two girls competing to see who could do the most back handsprings in a row. The first girl completed five back handsprings. The second compl eted seven, but upon landing her seventh flip she cut her foot open on a shattered glass bottle that was in the grass she was tumbling on. The main focus of this observation was having a conversation with the mother who was hosting the party.During the conversation I asked what motivated her to throw this party. â€Å"To make my daughter happy. † she said. â€Å"Honestly, my daughter has never really been one of the popular girls in school. There has been times where she has come home crying because kids have picked on her†¦ When she asked me if she could throw a Halloween party I didn’t say yes immediately, it definitely took some convincing but I figured it would make her happy and other children like her. † The next question I asked her was how she planned on handling all the teens that planned on drinking and then leaving afterwards.She said, â€Å"If anyone has had any amount of alcohol at my house they are not leaving. Upon entering my home I made ev eryone, whether they planned on drinking or not, give me his or her keys and no one will be allowed to leave unless they have a parent picking them up or if they have a designated driver. If they don’t have either of those, they’re staying the night here. † SURVEYING HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS: A survey containing 13 questions was conducted to discover how often underage drinking occurs among the students at Deland High School.The survey also collects information about where teenagers get their alcohol from, how their parents feel about underage drinking, why they drink, and if they’ve ever driven after drinking or ridden with someone who was under the influence of alcohol. A total of 75 surveys were given to students with ages ranging from thirteen to seventeen in the Deland High School cafeteria. The first and second questions on the survey ask if they’re a boy or girl to see whether more males or females take part in underage drinking, forty-five boys and thirty girls were surveyed.The second question asks their age to see if as the students get older if more of them participate in underage drinking. One 13 year old, five 14 year olds, thirty-two 15 year olds, twenty-six 16 year olds, and eleven 17 year olds were interviewed. The third question asked is â€Å"Have you ever drunk any amount of alcohol before? Yes/No†. Forty of the forty-five boys surveyed answered yes and 21 of the 30 girls answered yes as well. Although there were more boys than girl surveyed, it is obvious that the amount of boys who drink exceeds the number of girls, meaning boys are more likely to participate in underage drinking than girls. Have you ever driven after drinking? Yes/No† was the fourth question asked. Eleven boys answered yes, the remaining answered no. Fifteen girls answered yes, eleven answered no and the remaining four did not answer the question. The results from this question were surprising in both a good and bad way. Half of the girls admitted to driving after consuming some amount of alcohol. Whereas only a quarter of the boys surveyed answered no, that they had never drove after drinking.Question number five was a joint question with the question before asking â€Å"If not, have you ever ridden with someone after they had been drinking? † Twenty-six boys answered yes, the remaining nineteen answered no and twenty-two of the thirty-answered yes. These results show that even if some teens weren’t operating a vehicle after consuming alcohol, they were in a vehicle with someone who was under the influence of alcohol that could have led to a car accident involving not only themselves, but also one or more drivers on the road at that time.The sixth question asked was â€Å"Where do you drink most often? (Choose all the apply)† the students put and â€Å"X† or a check mark next to parties, a friend’s house or at home. Between boys and girls, a total of forty-eight said they have drank at parties, thirty-four say they have drank at a friend’s house and thirty have drank in their own home. â€Å"Where do you usually get your alcohol? † was the next question. The students put an â€Å"X† or a check mark next to friends, family, store, fake I. D. and/or stranger and chose all that applied.The results of this question show that forty-three students get their alcohol from a friend, twenty-four receive alcohol from one or more of their family members, twenty-seven buy alcohol from a store that sells to underage persons, two use a fake I. D. to purchase alcohol and ten have a complete stranger buy alcohol for them. This questions purpose is to show how easy it is for a person under the age of 21 to buy or receive alcohol and how common it is for someone 21 or over to provide minors with alcohol.Question eight asks, â€Å"Do your parents allow you to drink? Yes/No† twenty-one of the thirty girls and thirty-four of the forty-five boy s surveyed answered no that their parents do not allow them to drink. After comparing these results with the results from the third question asked on the survey, it’s obvious that most parents are unaware of their children’s participation in underage drinking and any other participation in dangerous activity such as driving under the influence, unprotected sex, etc. ifty-seven of the seventy-five students surveyed admitted to having one or more drinks of alcohol in their life, however, fifty-five of those fifty-seven parents do not allow their children to drink but they do it anyway. Question number nine asks â€Å"how many times have you drunk any amount of alcohol? † the students answered on a scale of 0, 1-5, 5-10, 10-15 and too many to count. Twenty-eight students answered 1-5 times, eleven answered 5-10 times, four answered 10-15, twenty-four answered too many times to count, five answered 0 and three didn’t put an answer at all.Continuing from the p revious question, number ten asks, â€Å"Out of those times, how many times have you been â€Å"drunk†? †. Twenty-three students answered every time, six answered 6-10 times, nineteen answered 1-5 times and twenty-two answered that they had never been â€Å"drunk† after consuming alcohol. Question 11 asks â€Å"Have your parents ever provided you with transportation after a night of drinking? † twenty-one answered yes while the remaining fifty-one answered no and three did not put an answer. The results from this question provide valuable information about the role parent’s play in a child’s participation and opinion on underage drinking.The next question asked â€Å"Do you think underage drinking is a severe problem in today’s society? † forty-five students answered yes, they do think it is a problem. The remaining thirty answered no they don’t think it is a severe problem. This question shows that even though more than half of the students surveyed believe underage drinking is a problem, 84 percent still drink. The last question was a written response which asked the students â€Å"Why do you drink? † twenty-seven answered, â€Å"to have fun†, eight said, â€Å"peer pressure† or â€Å"to fit in†, five said depression, and five answered, â€Å"to get drunk†.The remaining students didn’t answer or answered that they don’t drink. The overall discovery made by this survey is that most teenagers in high school are likely to drink based on their parents opinions on drinking, how easily and where they can access alcohol, and for social and emotional reasons as well. Although the survey shows that boys are more likely to drink than girls, the girls who do drink are more likely to drive after drinking which raises the chance of car accidents involving not only that person but one or more people in the cars surrounding them.Another surprising result of this survey was discovering where teens get their alcohol from, in a brief conversation with one of the people interviewed; they said, â€Å"Yeah, alcohol is definitely not as hard to get ahold of as it should be. There are a couple gas stations in Deland that will practically sell (alcohol) to anyone; they’d probably even sell to an infant just as long as they’re making a buck. † After asking another student where someone would get alcohol if there weren’t gas stations that sold to minors, they said: â€Å"They would probably get it from someone who is 21 or older, like family or friends.I know people who pay random people in parking lots to go buy alcohol for them. † Upon request, the names of these students will not be revealed; however, the information from these quotes verifies that teens have no trouble accessing alcohol which helps prevent their parents from finding out. RESULTS: This project was conducted to research how common drinking is among high school students, what scenarios influence children to take part in underage drinking, and what actions are being taken to help put a stop to underage drinking.Nationwide, approximately 5,000 people under the age of 21 die every year from alcohol related causes (â€Å"Underage Drinking†). Problems resulting from underage drinking are various fatalities, unwanted or unprotected sex, and disruption of brain development, lack of participation in school, legal problems and numerous physical injuries. Organizations such as the NIAAA and SAMHSA provide help, guidance and information to those who struggle with alcohol abuse and other drug problems. Programs started by these organizations help cure and reduce substance abuse and mental illness all over America.Conclusions from this survey show that many parents are unaware of their children’s participation in underage drinking, although some parents agree with the statement that they would rather â€Å"have their childre n drink in their home where they can be supervised rather than in a random place where there is little to no supervision†. These parents are the ones who support their children’s drinking habits by buying them alcohol, providing transportation and hosting parties where people from the ages of 12 to 21 engage in underage drinking.A survey given to the students at Deland High School shows that most students participate in underage drinking, however, a large percentage of the students who drink also agree that underage drinking is one of the biggest problems in society today. The survey also provides information about where or who supplies them with alcohol and how easy it is for them to obtain. The planned observation portion of this project brings to light the support of underage drinking provided by parents and also the dangerous events that can lead to injuries and even death while a minor is under the influence of alcohol.Overall, what was learned from this research i s that underage drinking is a growing problem in today’s society. It is the cause for thousands of deaths not only in Volusia County or the state of Florida, but also throughout the United States. This research displays how often underage drinking occurs in just one city, not including the rest of Florida and what actions can be taken to reduce and possibly even abolish underage drinking altogether. WORKS CITED â€Å"Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws. † CSPI Alcohol Policy. Web. 10 Oct. 012 â€Å"FloridaCHARTS. com-Florida Health Statistics and Community Health Data. † Florida Department of Health. Web. 10 Oct. 2012 â€Å"Official Website Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles. † Web. 10. Oct. 2012 â€Å"New Nationwide Report Estimates That 40 Percent of Underage Drinkers Received Free Alcohol From Adults Over 21. † SAMHSA. 28. June. 2008. Web. 10 Oct. 2012 â€Å"Florida’s Enforcement of Underage Drinking. † Moses & Ro oth, Attorneys at Law. N. p. , n. d. Web. 23 Oct. 2012. â€Å"Other Laws. † Laws RegardingDrugs, Alcohol and Driving. Web. 10 Oct. 2012 â€Å"Underage Drinking & the Law. † Underage Drinking & the Law. N. p. , n. d. Web. 24 Oct. â€Å"City Cracks down on Underage Drinking. † The Famuan. N. p. , n. d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. â€Å"College Rankings – Most Raging Party Scene in Florida. † College Prowler. N. p. , n. d. Web Horton, Jen. â€Å"DeLand Cracks down on Underage Drinking – The West Volusia Beacon. † Deland Cracks down on Underage Drinking – The West Volusia Beacon. The West Volusia Beacon, 15 July 2009. Web. 07 Nov. 2012.